Essay On Emergency In India

Short Essay On Emergency In India

Emergency in India refers to a period of time in the country’s history when the government was given extraordinary powers to deal with a perceived threat to national security or the stability of the country. The most notable emergency in India’s history was the nationwide state of emergency declared by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in 1975, which lasted for 21 months.

During the state of emergency, the Indian government suspended civil liberties, including the right to free speech and press freedom, and arrested opposition leaders and activists. The government also imposed censorship on the media and implemented economic policies that aimed to curb inflation and increase food production.

The state of emergency had a significant impact on India’s political and social landscape. Many people opposed the government’s actions and felt that the emergency was used to undermine democratic institutions and silence political opposition. The emergency also had a lasting impact on the Indian economy, causing high inflation and further poverty among the poorest sections of society.

In 1977, elections were held and the opposition parties swept to power, signaling the end of the emergency. The event led to significant changes in India’s constitution, including amendments that placed limits on the government’s powers during a state of emergency.

In conclusion, the state of emergency in India was a significant event in the country’s history and had far-reaching consequences. It highlighted the importance of protecting civil liberties and the need for democratic institutions to remain strong and functioning, even during times of crisis. The event serves as a reminder of the need for constant vigilance and the need to maintain the balance between national security and the protection of individual rights and freedoms.

long Essay On Emergency In India

India is a country of 1.3 billion people and it faces many problems every day. From natural disasters to political instability, India has had its fair share of emergencies. In this article, we explore the unique challenges that come with emergency situations in India and discuss how they can be better managed in the future.


In India, an emergency is a situation of great peril or danger where the lives of many people are at stake. The Indian Constitution provides for three types of emergencies – national, state and financial. A national emergency can be declared by the President on the advice of the Cabinet when the security of India or any part thereof is threatened by war, external aggression or armed rebellion. A state emergency can be declared by the Governor of a state on the advice of the Chief Minister when there is a failure of law and order or internal disturbance in the state which threatens the security of that state. A financial emergency can be proclaimed by the President when he is satisfied that a situation has arisen wherein the financial stability or credit of India or any part thereof is threatened.

The three types of emergencies have different implications and consequences. A national emergency suspends all Fundamental Rights guaranteed by the Constitution while a state emergency only suspends those rights which are specifically mentioned in Article 358. In addition, during a national emergency, Parliament may pass laws which would ordinarily be outside its power to do so while no such laws can be passed during a state emergency. Financial emergencies do not Suspend any Fundamental Rights but allow for certain economic measures to be taken which may otherwise not be permissible.

Emergencies are proclaimed very rarely in India – there have only been three nationwide emergencies declared so far, in 1962 (Indo-Pakistani War), 1971 (Indo-Pakistani War) and 1975 (Internal Emergency). State-

Causes of Emergency in India

There are many causes of emergency in India. Some of the most common include natural disasters, such as floods, landslides, and earthquakes. Other causes of emergency in India can be man-made, such as terrorist attacks, industrial accidents, and infrastructure failures.

Natural disasters are a leading cause of emergency in India. Floods are especially common in the country, due to its large size and diverse geography. Landslides and earthquakes can also occur, causing damage to property and loss of life.

Man-made emergencies can also be devastating in India. Terrorist attacks have occurred in various parts of the country, including Mumbai, Delhi, and Bangalore. Industrial accidents, such as the Bhopal gas tragedy, have also caused great loss of life and damage to property. Infrastructure failures, such as power outages and water shortages, can also lead to emergency situations.

Effects of Emergency on Indian Society

The Emergency, imposed in 1975 by then-Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, had a profound and lasting impact on Indian society. The 21-month period saw a massive crackdown on civil liberties, with thousands of political opponents and dissenters jailed without charge or trial. The media was censored and press freedom heavily curtailed.

The Emergency also had a deep social impact. India’s already-divided society became even more polarised, with the Congress party’s base of support narrowing significantly. The poor and marginalised were the hardest hit by the government’s repressive measures. In the rural areas, particularly, the Emergency led to a feeling of powerlessness and insecurity among the peasantry.

The legacy of the Emergency is still very much evident in India today. The country remains deeply divided along political and social lines, and civil liberties are still far from guaranteed. The experience of the Emergency has left a permanent mark on Indian society.

Measures Taken to Control the Situation

The Government of India has taken several measures to control the situation in the country. The first measure is to provide financial assistance to the affected families. The second measure is to provide food and water to the affected areas. The third measure is to provide medical assistance to the affected people. The fourth measure is to provide shelter to the affected people.

Role of Media During the Emergency

During the emergency, the role of media was crucial in disseminating information and maintaining communication between the government and the people. The media played a vital role in raising awareness about the emergency, its causes and effects, and the steps that were being taken by the government to address it. In addition, media outlets provided a platform for people to voice their concerns and share their experiences.

The emergency highlights the importance of an independent and free press in a democracy. The media is often referred to as the fourth pillar of democracy, and its role during times of crisis is crucial in ensuring that the government is held accountable and that people are informed about what is happening.

Impact of Emergency on Human Rights and Liberties

The imposition of Emergency in India had a profound impact on human rights and liberties. The most immediate effect was the suspension of the right to habeas corpus, which meant that people could be detained without being charged or brought before a judge. This led to a sharp increase in the number of political prisoners, as the government sought to silence its opponents. Other rights were also curtailed, including freedom of speech, assembly and association. The press was censored and several newspapers were shut down. Thousands of people were arrested and tortured, and many others fled the country. The Emergency had a lasting impact on Indian democracy, as it showed that the government was willing to use authoritarian methods to stay in power. It also eroded public trust in the institutions of government, and made it harder for critics of the government to speak out.


In conclusion, the emergency situation in India is a grim one that needs to be addressed as soon as possible. It is clear that the government alone cannot solve this problem and everyone must come together to make sure that affected individuals receive the help they need. We all have a part to play in ensuring that those who are suffering from this crisis get access to essential services and support during these trying times. Only then can we hope for an improved future wherein no one has to experience such difficult situations again.

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