Essay On Indian Economy

Short Essay On Indian Economy

The Indian economy is the fifth-largest in the world by nominal GDP and the third-largest by purchasing power parity. Over the past few decades, India has transformed itself into a fast-growing developing economy. The Indian economy is characterized by a large population, a rapidly growing middle class, and a diversified economic structure.

In the 1990s, India began implementing economic reforms aimed at liberalizing and globalizing the economy. These reforms led to an increase in foreign investment and trade, which fueled economic growth. The service sector, particularly information technology, has been a key driver of growth in recent years, and manufacturing and agriculture have also been important contributors to the economy.

Despite these achievements, the Indian economy still faces several challenges. Poverty, unemployment, and income inequality remain widespread, particularly in rural areas. The country’s infrastructure is inadequate, which hinders economic growth and competitiveness. Additionally, corruption and bureaucratic inefficiencies continue to be major issues.

To sustain its economic growth and address these challenges, India must continue to implement reforms, attract foreign investment, and promote entrepreneurship and innovation. The government is taking steps to improve infrastructure, increase access to credit and capital, and enhance the business environment. Additionally, there is a need to focus on social development and inclusion, such as education and healthcare, to ensure that the benefits of economic growth are shared by all segments of society.

In conclusion, the Indian economy has made significant progress in recent years, but there is still much to be done to address its challenges and sustain its growth. With the right policies and initiatives, India has the potential to become a major economic power in the coming years.

Long Essay On Indian Economy

India is a developing economy with one of the world’s fastest growing GDPs. Since gaining independence in 1947, the country has come a long way in terms of economic progress. In this article, we will explore the growth and development of India’s economy by looking at its history, current condition, and future prospects. So buckle up and join us on this journey as we explore what makes the Indian economy so unique!

Introduction to Indian Economy

India is the world’s seventh-largest economy by nominal GDP and the third-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). The country is one of the G-20 major economies and a member of BRICS. On 1 April 2021, India overtook France to become the fifth-largest economy in the world. India is projected to be the second-largest economy in the world by 2027, with a projected GDP of $16.9 trillion, and is also expected to account for about 17% of global economic growth between 2020 and 2025.

The Indian economy has been growing steadily over the past few years, with real GDP growth averaging 7.5% per year in the period from FY2015 to FY2020. In FY2020, the economy grew by 4.0% in real terms, slower than the 6.1% growth recorded in FY2019 but faster than the 3.2% expansion seen in FY2018. The deceleration in growth was mainly due to weaker domestic demand, as both private consumption and investment slowed down significantly during the year. Nevertheless, India was one of only a handful of economies that continued to grow at a reasonable pace despite headwinds from slowing global trade and weakening investment activity.

Looking ahead, we expect India’s economic growth to pick up to 7.4% in FY2021 as domestic demand conditions improve on account of several supportive factors such as lower oil prices, higher government spending (especially on infrastructure),

Causes of Economic Growth in India

India’s economic growth has been spurred by a number of factors, including a young and growing population, increasing investment, and reforms to encourage growth.

The population of India is projected to grow to 1.6 billion by 2050, making it the world’s most populous country. This growth is expected to provide a boost to the economy, as a larger workforce will be available to drive productivity. Additionally, India has a large pool of young people who are potential consumers and workers. The median age in India is just 28 years old, compared to 37 in China and 46 in Japan.

Investment has also been a key driver of India’s economic growth. Foreign direct investment (FDI) into India grew by 7% in 2016 to reach $62 billion. Indian businesses have also been investing more domestically, with corporate investment growing by 13% in 2016. These investments are helping to fuel economic activity and create jobs.

Finally, the government has enacted a number of reforms over the past few years that have helped spur economic growth. These include opening up sectors like aviation and insurance to foreign investors, introducing a Goods and Services Tax (GST), and enacting measures to reduce red tape and bureaucracy. By taking steps to make doing business easier, the government is encouraging more investment and activity which will help boost growth.

Challenges Facing the Indian Economy

The Indian economy is facing a number of challenges at the moment. These include:

1) The Slowdown in Growth: India’s economy has been losing steam over the past few quarters. GDP growth has slowed down from 7.5% in 2015-16 to just 6.7% in 2016-17. This is a matter of concern as it indicates that the economy is losing momentum.

2) The Challenge of Job Creation: One of the big challenges facing the Indian economy is that of creating enough jobs for the millions of young people who enter the workforce every year. At present, only around 1 million new jobs are being created every year, which is far short of the estimated 10-12 million new entrants into the workforce. This is leading to rising unemployment and underemployment, which is a major challenge for the economy.

3) The Problem of Agricultural Distress: Another big challenge facing the Indian economy is that of agricultural distress. Farmers across the country are facing problems such as low crop prices, high input costs and inadequate credit availability. This has led to farmer protests and agitation in many parts of the country, which is a matter of concern for the government.

4) The Challenge of Managing Inflation: Another big challenge for the Indian economy is that of managing inflation. Inflation has picked up in recent months and is now well above 4%. This is causing hardship for householders as well as businesses, and is one of the factors behind the slowdown in growth.

5) The Challenge of Managing Public Debt: India’s public debt has been rising sharply in recent years and is now around 70% of GDP. This is a matter of concern as it increases the vulnerability of the economy to external shocks.

6) The Challenge of Addressing Structural Issues: Finally, there are a number of structural issues that need to be addressed in order for India to sustain its economic growth over the long term. These include improving infrastructure, reforming labour laws, reducing regulatory hurdles and investing in human capital.

Impact of Globalization on Indian Economy

Globalization has had a profound impact on the Indian economy. It has resulted in increased efficiency and productivity, as well as greater competition. However, it has also led to increased inequality and unemployment.

The most significant impact of globalization on the Indian economy has been the liberalization of the country’s trade and investment policies. This has resulted in an influx of foreign capital and technology, which has spurred economic growth. However, it has also led to job losses in certain sectors, as well as increased inequality.

In recent years, the Indian government has taken steps to address some of the negative impacts of globalization by introducing policies that protect workers and promote inclusive growth. For instance, the government has introduced a national minimum wage and provided training and financial support to workers who have lost their jobs due to globalization. Additionally, the government is working to improve infrastructure and provide access to education and healthcare in rural areas.

Overall, globalization has had both positive and negative impacts on the Indian economy. While it has contributed to economic growth, it has also created new challenges that need to be addressed.

Sectors of the Indian Economy

The Indian economy is broadly classified into three sectors: primary, secondary and tertiary.

The primary sector is the sector of the economy that comprises of raw materials and agriculture. It is the most basic sector of the economy and employs the largest section of the country’s workforce. The secondary sector is the manufacturing and construction sector that transforms raw materials into finished goods. The tertiary sector is the service sector that includes trade, transport, communications, banking, education, health, tourism etc.

The Indian economy has been growing rapidly over the past few years. The GDP growth rate was 7.6% in 2016-17 and is expected to grow at around 8% in 2017-18. The service sector is the fastest growing sector of the economy and contributes to around 57% of the GDP. The primary sector accounts for around 15% of the GDP while the secondary sector contributes to around 28% of the GDP.

Government Policies and Initiatives to Improve the Economy

The Government of India has taken several initiatives to improve the economy of the country. These include the Make in India campaign, which aims to increase manufacturing in India and make it a global hub for manufacturing; the Digital India initiative, which aims to increase digital connectivity and access to information and services; the Skill India initiative, which aims to provide training and employment opportunities; the Startup India initiative, which aims to promote entrepreneurship; and the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, which aims to clean up public spaces. The government has also launched schemes such as the Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana, which provides financial inclusion for all citizens; the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana, which provides crop insurance for farmers; and the Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana, which provides loans for small businesses. In addition, the government has implemented a number of reforms, including demonetization and the Goods and Services Tax (GST), which aim to boost economic growth.


India’s economy continues to be very strong and resilient as it has been for centuries. With its vast population, diverse culture and abundant natural resources, the Indian economy is well-positioned to take advantage of many opportunities. The government’s economic policies are focused on providing a better quality of life for citizens while also promoting economic growth. With continued focus on developing infrastructure and creating an environment that encourages investment in the country, India is sure to remain one of the world’s leading economies in the years ahead.

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