Essay On Indian Politics

Short Essay On Indian Politics

Indian politics is a complex and dynamic system that has been shaped by a rich and diverse cultural heritage, social and economic differences, and a history of colonialism and independence. The politics of India is characterized by a federal system of government, a parliamentary democracy, and a diverse population of over 1.3 billion people.

One of the defining features of Indian politics is the existence of multiple political parties, each with its own ideologies, interests, and constituencies. The Indian National Congress, which was the dominant political party for much of India’s history as an independent nation, now competes with regional and national parties such as the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), the Communist Party of India (CPI), and the All India Trinamool Congress (AITC).

Another important aspect of Indian politics is the role of religion and caste in shaping political identities and allegiances. India is a country with a large Hindu majority, but also has significant populations of Muslims, Christians, Buddhists, and other religious groups. Political parties and leaders often appeal to religious and caste identities in order to gain support from specific communities.

Corruption is also a major challenge in Indian politics. Despite efforts to improve governance and transparency, corruption remains a widespread problem, affecting all levels of government and public institutions. This can have a negative impact on the delivery of essential services and public goods, such as healthcare, education, and infrastructure.

In conclusion, Indian politics is a complex and constantly evolving system that is shaped by a variety of historical, cultural, social, and economic factors. While it has its challenges, Indian politics has also been characterized by a commitment to democracy, pluralism, and the rule of law. As India continues to develop and grow, its political system will play a crucial role in shaping the future of the country and its people.

Long Essay On Indian Politics

India is a vibrant democracy with a number of political parties vying for power in the country. With such a diverse population, Indian politics can often be complex and dynamic. In this article, we will explore the different aspects of Indian politics and provide an in-depth analysis of how it has evolved over the years. From analyzing current trends to exploring the potential implications of certain policy decisions, this essay will provide readers with a comprehensive understanding of Indian politics. So buckle up and get ready to dive into this fascinating topic!

Introduction to Indian Politics

The Constitution of India is the supreme law of the country. It lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles, establishes the structure, procedures, powers, and duties of government institutions, and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles, and the duties of citizens.

Indian politics operate on the basis of the constitution. The constitution provides for a parliamentary form of government with a bicameral legislature i.e. Lok Sabha (House of the People) and Rajya Sabha (Council of States). The President is the head of state while the Prime Minister is the head of government.

The parliament is responsible for making laws. The executive branch headed by the Prime Minister implements these laws while judiciary interprets them. All three organs work independently within their own spheres but are interdependent on each other.

There are two major political parties in India- Indian National Congress (INC) and Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). Several regional and smaller parties also exist. The INC has been in power for most of the years since independence except for brief periods when BJP or other parties have been in power either alone or in coalition with others .

The Indian politics is also shaped by the civil society, which includes movements like farmers’ movements, trade union movements, women’s rights movements etc. These movements have been instrumental in bringing about many changes in the country.

India is a multi-cultural and multi-religious country with people belonging to different religions, castes, and language groups living together. This diversity has resulted in complex political issues that need to be addressed through dialogue and consensus-building.

Political System in India

The political system in India is based on the Constitution of India, which was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949 and came into effect on 26 January 1950. The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India and it lays down the framework for the legal and political system in India.

The political system in India is federal in nature, with a parliamentary form of government. The President of India is the head of state, while the Prime Minister is the head of government. The President is elected by an electoral college for a five-year term, while the Prime Minister is appointed by the President from among the members of Parliament.

The Parliament of India is bicameral, with two houses: the Lok Sabha (House of the People) and Rajya Sabha (Council of States). The Lok Sabha is composed of representatives elected by popular vote from single-member constituencies; each constituency has roughly equal population. The Rajya Sabha is composed of representatives nominated by the President from among persons who are distinguished in their fields, such as literature, science, art, and social service. Each house has different powers: for example, only Lok Sabha can pass laws relating to money matters.

There are two major political parties in India: Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and Indian National Congress (INC). BJP is considered to be centre-right while INC is considered to be centre-left. There are also many regional parties with varying ideologies.

Different Political Parties in India

India is a country with a diverse range of political parties. There are national, state and regional level parties. The national level parties are the ones that contest in the Lok Sabha elections while the state level parties contest in the Vidhan Sabha elections. The regional level parties contest in the local body elections.

The Indian National Congress is one of the oldest and most prominent political parties in India. It was founded in 1885 by Allan Octavian Hume. The party has been a dominant force in Indian politics since independence. The party has always been associated with the ideals of democracy, secularism and socialism.

The Bharatiya Janata Party is another major party in India. It was founded in 1980 by Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Lal Krishna Advani. The party is affiliated with the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, a right-wing Hindu nationalist organisation. The BJP’s ideology is based on Hindutva, which is an extremist form of Hindu nationalism.

The Communist Party of India (Marxist) is one of the largest communist parties in India. It was founded in 1964 by Sino-Indian War veterans like E M S Namboodiripad and Ajoy Ghosh. CPI(M) follows a Marxist-Leninist ideology and has been critical of both the Congress and BJP governments.

The Bahujan Samaj Party is a Dalit-led political party founded by Kanshi Ram in 1984. The party is based in Uttar Pradesh and has a strong base among the Scheduled Castes and OBCs. Its ideology is based on the principles of social justice and equality, and it seeks to uplift the marginalised sections of society.

These are some of the major political parties in India, but there are many more that form part of India’s vibrant democracy.

Role of the Government in Indian Politics

The Government of India is the supreme governing body of the Republic of India. The government, as per the Constitution of India, is composed of three branches: the executive, the legislature, and the judiciary, in which each branch has separate and independent powers and functions.

The executive branch is headed by the President of India and comprises the Council of Ministers (the Cabinet being its core) responsible to Parliament. Parliament itself consists of two Houses: Lok Sabha (the House of the People) and Rajya Sabha (the Council of States). The Judiciary is headed by the Supreme Court with 21 High Courts beneath it. Constitutional Amendment can be initiated only by Lok Sabha.

The Government in India has been a continuous process since ancient times. Even before independence, different forms of governments existed in different parts of the country. The British rule saw a centralised form of government with power concentrated in Delhi. After independence, the Constitution was framed which laid down a federal structure of government with a clear demarcation of powers between Union and State Governments.

The Union Government comprises Central or FederalMinistries/Departments which are concerned with pan-India subjects like Defence, External Affairs etc., while State Governments handle matters concerning state subjects like police, education etc. Each Ministry/Department is under the chargeof a Minister who is assisted by one or more Ministersof State. Under Article 77of Indian Constitution, there are 4 typesof ministers – Cabinet Minister(the head), Ministerof State , Deputy Ministerand Parliamentary Secretary.

The role of the Government in Indian politics is to ensure that all its citizens are given equal rights and opportunities, to promote social justice and economic development, to protect its people from external or internal threats and to uphold the Constitution. The Government acts as a mediator between different communities, regions and religions and strives for a peaceful society. The Government is also responsible for providing basic services such as healthcare, education, housing etc.,to its citizens. It is also tasked with ensuring financial stability through fiscal policies like taxation, public debt management etc.,and formulating economic policies like foreign trade regulation etc.

Problems Faced by the Indian Political System

India is a country with a very diverse population. This diversity is reflected in the Indian political system, which is quite complex. The political system faces many challenges, including the following:

1. Corruption: Corruption is a major problem in the Indian political system. Political parties and politicians are often involved in corrupt practices such as nepotism, cronyism, and embezzlement of public funds. This has led to a loss of faith in the political system among the general public.

2. Lack of transparency: The lack of transparency in the functioning of the political system is another major problem. There is a lack of accountability and responsibility among politicians, which has led to a feeling of dissatisfaction among the people.

3. Communalism: Communalism is another major problem faced by the Indian political system. Due to the presence of different religious communities in India, there is often tension and conflict between them. This communalism sometimes takes the form of violence, which can lead to disharmony and unrest in society.

4. Regionalism: Regionalism is another issue that plagues the Indian political system. Due to the vast size of the country, there are often differences between various regions on issues such as language, culture, and economic development. This can lead to centrifugal forces that threaten to break up the country along regional lines .

5. Lack of Representation: Women and minorities are often underrepresented in the political system, which can lead to a feeling of alienation among these groups. This lack of representation has made it difficult for them to access their basic rights and entitlements.

6. Misuse of Power: Some politicians misuse their power to further their own interests, rather than the interests of the people they represent. This is another major problem faced by the Indian political system, as it leads to a lack of trust between politicians and the public.

Impact of International Politics on India

The political scenario in India has always been highly influenced by international politics. The country’s relations with its neighbours have been shaped by the larger global context, and India’s foreign policy has been significantly impacted by international developments. In recent years, the rise of China and the election of Donald Trump have had a significant impact on Indian politics.

China is India’s largest trading partner, and the two countries are also major strategic rivals. The border dispute between the two countries continues to be a source of tension, and their relations were further strained by the Doklam military standoff in 2017. Trump’s election as US President has led to increased uncertainty in the world, and this has had an impact on India-US relations. Trump’s protectionist policies have led to concerns about the future of the global economy, and this has had an impact on India’s economic growth.

The impact of international politics on Indian politics is evident from the above examples. International developments can have a significant impact on the domestic politics of a country, and this is especially true in the case of India.


Indian politics plays a pivotal role in shaping the future of India. The complex web of Indian politics is intriguing and fascinating, but also unpredictable and unstable. Political parties have to be accountable for their actions as they are responsible for formulating policies that will affect millions of lives across the country. It is important for citizens to understand their political environment so that they can make informed decisions about who to cast their votes for in elections. By doing this, we stand a chance of creating a better future for our nation and its people.

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